Влияние географической широты на климат


The USA occupies a large territory in the central part of the North American continent. As it is a very large country, it has several different climatic regions.

Different factors usually influence the climate: the distance from the Equator, landforms and oceans.

The coldest regions are in the north and north-east of the country. A special place is Alaska. Climatic conditions vary there, too. Near the capital Juneau [`dзunou] a relatively moderate maritime climate prevails. The inland is characterised by short, hot summers and long bitterly cold winters. Although snowy in winter, continental Alaska is relatively dry.

The eastern continental region is well …
watered. It includes all the Atlantic seaboard and extends west and covers all the states of the Mississippi valley. The region around the Great Lakes is known for its changeable weather.

The climate of the prairie lands lying to the west is droughty [`drauti]. Dryness increases from east to west. Usually the rain falls only in the early summer.

To the west beyond the mountains there is a vast dry region. This dry land extends from Canada to Mexico.

The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring lots of rain and even typhoons.

The higher zones of the Rockies and other mountains are characterised by a typical Alpine climate, when summer days are often bright and warm, but the nights are cold.

So, it’s rather difficult to talk of the US climate as a whole. In fact, the country has many climates.





Географическая широта определяет зональность в распределении элементов климата. Солнечная радиация поступает на верхнюю грани­цу атмосферы в зависимости от географической широты, которая опре­деляет полуденную высоту Солнца и продолжительность облучения. Поглощенная радиация распределяется сложнее, так как зависит от облачности, альбедо земной поверхности, степени прозрачности воздуха.

Зональность лежит и в основе распределения температуры воздуха, которое зависит не только от поглощенной радиации, но и от циркуляци­онных условий. Зональность в распределении температуры приводит к зональности других метеорологических величин климата.

Влияние географической широты на распределение метеорологичес­ких величин становится заметнее с высотой, когда ослабевает влияние других факторов климата, связанных с земной поверхностью.