Косвенная речь (Reported speech)

Понятие «косвенная речь» относится к предложениям, сообщающим нам информацию со слов другого человека. Такие предложения почти всегда употребляются в разговорном английском.

  • В случае если глагол, передающий нам слова говорящего, стоит в форме прошедшего времени (т.е. said), то часть предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, также будет в форме прошедшего времени. Таким образом, мы как бы делаем «шаг назад» от формы глагола в начальном предложении

Пример: He said the test wasdifficult Он сказал, что тест был сложный
She said she watchedTV every day Она сказала, что смотрела телевизор каждый день
Jack said he came to school every day Джек сказал, что ходил в школу каждый день
  • В случае если глагол, передающий нам слова говорящего, стоит в форме настоящего простого, настоящего совершенного или будущего времени (например, says), то временная форма глагола, стоящего в части предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, остается без изменения.
Пример: He says the test isdifficult Он говорит, что тест сложный
She has said shewatches TV every day Она сказала, что смотрит телевизор каждый день
Jack will say he comesto school every day Джек скажет, что ходит в школу каждый день
  • Если мы передаем чьи-то слова, содержащие неоспоримые факты, то в части предложения, которая собственно содержит слова говорящего, также сохраняется форма настоящего времени.
Пример: The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important Учитель сказал, что фразовые глаголы очень важны

Когда мы преобразуем предложение из прямой речи в косвенную речь,зачастую необходимо заменить местоимение, чтобы оно совпадало по форме с подлежащим.

Пример: She said, “I want to bring my children.” → She said shewanted to bring her children
Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show.” → Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show

Также важно заменять наречия времени, чтобы они совпадали с моментом речи.

today, tonight → that day, that night

tomorrow → the day after / the next day / the following day

yesterday → the day before / the previous day

now → then / at that time / immediately

this week → that week

next week → the week after / the following week

last week → the week before / the previous week

ago → before

here→ there

Пример: She said, “I want to bring my children tomorrow.” → She said she wanted to bring her children the next day
Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show yesterday.” → Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show the day before

Когда мы при помощи косвенной речи передаем вопросы, особое внимание нужно обращать на соединительные союзы и порядок слов в предложении. Когда мы передаем общие вопросы, подразумевающие ответ «да» или «нет», мы соединяем собственно вопрос со словами автора при помощи ‘if’. Если же мы передаем вопросы, использующие вопросительные слова (why, where, when и т.д.), мы используем это вопросительное слово.

Пример: She asked, “Do you want to come with me?” → She asked me if I wanted to come with her
Dave asked, “Where did you go last weekend?” → Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend

В данной таблице представлены изменения, происходящие при преобразовании предложений из прямой речи в косвенную, используя форму прошедшего времени глагола, передающего нам слова говорящего. Обращаем Ваше внимание на то, Simple past, present perfect и past perfect past perfect в косвенной речи.

ПРЯМАЯ РЕЧЬ КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ
SIMPLE PRESENT → SIMPLE PAST
“I work in Google.” “I don’t work in Yahoo.” “I am a construction engineer.” “I’m not an accountant.” He said he worked in Google He said he didn’t work in Yahoo He said he was a construction engineer He said he wasn’t an accountant
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE → PAST PROGRESSIVE
“I’m cleaning my flat today.” “I’m not going to the office today.” “Mary is singing in the show.” “She isn’t dancing in the show.” He said he was cleaning his flat today He said he wasn’t going to the office today Lee said that Mary was singingin the show He said she wasn’t dancing in the show
PRESENT PERFECT → PAST PERFECT
“I’ve already read that book.” “I haven’t heard of that film before.” “Gary has called yesterday.” “He hasn’t left any messages though.” She said she had already readthat book She said she hadn’t heard of that film before Jack said Gary had calledyesterday He said Gary hadn’t left any messages though
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE → PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
“Jeff has been running.” “He hasn’t been working.” “Celine and Lee have been walkingthrough the forest.” “They haven’t been shopping.” She said Jeff had been running She said he hadn’t been working Ling said they had been walkingthrough the forest She said they hadn’t been shopping
SIMPLE PAST → PAST PERFECT
“I saw my ex-boyfriend.” “I didn’t see the robbery.” “I arrived on time.” “I wasn’t late.” She said she had seen her ex-boyfriend She said she hadn’t seen the robbery He said he had arrived on time He said he hadn’t been late
МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ PRESENT MODALS → PAST MODALS
“I will mop the floor.” “I won’t come.” She said she would mop the floor He said he wouldn’t come
“I can run fast.” “I can’t play chess.” He said he could run fast He said he couldn’t play chess
“There may be a traffic jam.” “There may not be any sugar left.” (нет сокращенной формы) She said there might be a traffic jam She said there might not be any sugar left (нет сокращенной формы)
HAVE TO / HAS TO и MUST → HAD TO
“I have to clean the flat.” “I don’t have to clean the garage.” He said he had to clean the flat He said he didn’t have to clean the garage
“Sara has to go to hospital today.” “She doesn’t have to go to work.” Peter said Sara had to go to hospital today He said she didn’t have to go to work
“I must go to the dentist.” (нет отрицательной формы) She said she had to go to the dentist (нет отрицательной формы)
СЛЕДУЩИЕ МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ НЕ МЕНЯЮТ СВОЕЙ ФОРМЫ: would, could, might, ought to, should
“I would like a cup of coffee.” He said he would like a cup of coffee
“I couldn’t be at the wedding ceremony.” She said she couldn’t be at the wedding ceremony
“It might snow today.” The weatherman said it mightsnow today
“You really ought to do the test.” The teacher said I really ought todo the test
“You should be nicer to your step-brother.” My dad said I should be nicer to my step-brother