1. All goods and services are measured and expressed in ___________.
2. Playing cards can result in _________________________________.
3. _______________________ on storage some assets can be very high.
4. __________________________ means what amount of goods and services you can purchase at a certain period of time.
5. How much is your _________________________________________?
6. Money performs four specific______________________________.
7. Across places and times people ______________________________ different things for goods and services.
8. Last world economic crisis caused great __________________ for many businesses in many countries.
9. If you take money from the bank you will have to pay ______________.
10. Cars ________________________in value …
270. Unit of value /a unit of account – единица стоимости
271. Medium of exchange /a medium of payments – средство обращения/платежа
272. Standard of deferred payments – средство погашения долга
273. Store of value – средство сбережения
274. Purchasing power – покупательская способность
275 offer a bargain – предлагать сделку
276. Salary- зарплата
277. Depreciate – обесценивать, уменьшать цену, падать в цене
Денежная система в России
Прочитайте следующий текст и переведите его на русский язык.
The ruble or ruble is the currency of the Russian Federation. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopeks or copecks.
According to the most popular version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb руби́ть, meaning to chop. Historically, a "ruble" was a piece of a certain weight chopped off a gold or silver ingot (grivna), hence the name. Another version is that the name comes from the Russian noun рубе́ц, meaning "seam", as coins were molded and a seam was clearly visible on the side.
Currently there is no official symbol for the ruble, though the abbreviation руб. is in wide use. A currency symbol was used for the ruble between the 16th century and the 18th century. The symbol consisted of the Russian letters "Р" (rotated by 90° counter-clockwise) and "У" (written on top of it). The symbol was placed overthe amount number to which belonged to. This symbol, however, fell into disuse during the 19th century onward.
The ruble has been the Russian unit of currency for about 500 years. From 1710 the ruble was divided into 100 kopeks.
The amount of precious metal in a ruble varied over time. In a 1704 currency reform, Peter I standardized the ruble to 28 grams of silver. While ruble coins were silver, there were higher denominations minted of gold and platinum. By the end of the 18th century, the ruble was set to 4 zolotnik 21 dolya (almost equal to 18 grams) of pure silver or 27 dolya (almost equal to 1.2 grams) of pure gold, with a ratio of 15:1 for the values of the two metals. In 1828, platinum coins were introduced with 1 ruble equal to 77⅔ dolya (3.451 grams).
On 17 December 1885, a new standard was adopted which did not change the silver ruble but reduced the gold content to 1.161 grams, pegging the gold ruble to the French franc at a rate of 1 ruble = 4 francs. This rate was revised in 1897 to 1 ruble = 2⅔ francs (0.774 grams gold).
With the outbreak of the First World War, the gold standard peg was dropped and the ruble fell in value, suffering from hyperinflation in the early 1920s.
All Russian paper money is currently printed at the state-owned factory Goznak in Moscow, which was organized on 6 June 1919 and has continued to operate ever since. Coins are minted in Moscow and at the Saint Petersburg Mint, which has been operating since 1724.
А. Вставьте в предложение пропущенное слово: ingot, paper money, hyperinflation, rate, the gold standard, the Russian unit of currency, the ruble, equal, coins, denominations.
1. In the early 1920s.the economy of our country suffered from _______________.
2. _______________________________is subdivided into 100 kopeks or copecks.
3._______________________________________ changes from time to time.
4. If you have a gold or silver _______________________ you`d better keep it in the bank.
5. Currently Goznak is the state-owned factory that prints all Russian_______________________________________________________.
6. All Russian paper money is currently printed in Moscow but _________ are minted in Moscow and at the Saint Petersburg Mint.
7. The ___________________________of different currencies can be revised.
8.Coins of what _______________________________are minted in Russia?
9. The ruble is _________________________________________________.
10. By the end of the 18th century 27 dolya was almost exactly _________________to 1.2 grams of pure gold.
278. The ruble /rouble — рубль
279. The currency of the Russian Federation — валюта РФ
280. A gold or silver ingot – золотой или серебряный слиток
281. Official symbol for the ruble – официальный символ рубля
282. The abbreviation for the ruble – аббревиатура (сокращение) рубля
283. Precious metal – ценный метал
284. A currency reform – денежная реформа
285. A coin — монета
286. To mint – чеканить, выпускать монеты
287. Suffer from hyperinflation – страдать от гиперинфляции
288. Paper money – денежные деньги
289. The state-owned factory Goznak–государственная фабрика «Гоззнак»