1. The __________________________________must gather relevant economic information; shape it into a suitable for users form and communicate it to users.
2. The accounting system of a small grocery may be _______________________to the accounting system of an international oil exploration and refining business.
3. Simple accounting system is _________________________________to operate.
4. Certain common elements to all accounting systems are necessary to appreciate _____________________________________________________of these systems.
5. The owner-manager of a small grocery store is ______________________with the amount of trade carried out and the level of stock and cash.
6. A ____________________may provide more accurate and detailed information,
7. A senior manager in an international business may be responsible for …
different trading operations __________________________________the world.
8. A senior manager in an international business isn’t closely involved in ___________________________________operations.
9. For an international oil exploration and refining business the accounting system can become ________________________________________________________.
10. The complexity of the business and the needs of the manager for detailed information make the accounting system both _____________and ____________.
219. The accounting system – система бухгалтерского учета
220. User — пользователь
221. Oil exploration and refining business – предприятие по добыче и переработки нефти
222. To be common to all accounting systems – быть общим для всех систем ведения бухгалтерского учета
223. To Identify – идентифицировать, устанавливать подлинность
224. To appreciate the functioning of the system – оценивать функционирование системы
225. Information collection – сбор информации
226. Information recording – регистрация информации
227. Information evaluation – оценка информации
228. Information reporting – представление информации
229. Design an accounting system – моделировать /разрабатывать систему ведения бухгалтерского учета
230. The complexity of the system – сложность системы
231. Expensive — дорогой
232 the day-to-day performance of the business – ежедневное ведение бизнеса
233. Involve in trading operations – вовлекать (затрагивать) торговые операции
234. To be familiar with – хорошо знать, быть привычным с чем-либо
235. The amount of — количество
236. Cash – наличные деньги, касса
237. Premises – недвижимость предприятия (производственные и административные здания с участком)
238. To be responsible for – быть ответственным за
239. throughout the world – во всем мире
18. Прочитайте следующий текст и переведите его на русский язык.
THE BALANCE SHEET
1. The balance sheet shows what a company owns (its assets) and the sources of financing these assets and operating activities by shareholders (equity) and by borrowing (liabilities). It is a "snapshot" of the company’s financial position at a specified time. As a rule, the balance sheet consists of three major sections: assets, liabilities and equity.
2. These three sections are arranged differently from country to country. In the USA and many European countries, the assets are on the left-hand side of the page and the liabilities on the right. In Britain these sections are arranged vertically.
3. Assets. The assets of a company are often divided into two categories: 1) current assets and 2) non-current assets. These categories are listed in the order of their presumed liquidity. Current assets are more liquid than non-current assets.
4. Current assets can be defined in the following way: cash or other assets that are expected to be realised in cash or sold during a normal operating cycle of a business or within one year if within one year is shorter than one year. Cash is obviously a current asset. Temporary investments, accounts and notes receivable, and inventory are also current assets because they may be converted to cash within the next year or during the normal operating cycle of most firms.
Prepaid expenses such as rent and insurance paid for in advance, and inventories of various supplies bought for use rather than for sale should be classified as current assets. To make a long story short, current assets are a list of all the assets owned by the business which have a life expectancy of less than one year. For example, inventories (stock of goods), trade and other receivables, prepayments, cash etc. are also current assets.
Non-current assets include: property, plant and equipment, fixed assets. The assets which are expected to remain in the balance sheet more than one year fall into non-current assets category too.
5. Liabilitiesare made up of mortgages, payable long-term notes, bonds payable, employee pensions, long-term and current obligations. They are also split into current and non-current (long-term) liabilities. Current liabilities usually consist of over drafts, taxes due but not yet paid, and goods supplied on credit.
6. Owner’s equitycan be defined as the resources invested by the business. To put it differently, "owner’s equity = assets — liabilities". It should be noted that the owner’s equity section of the balance sheet will be different depending on whether the business is a sole proprietorship, a partnership, or a corporation. The owner’s equity section of a corporation is called stockholders’ equity and has two parts: contributed or paid-in capital and earned capital or retained earnings.